Search: Quiz 4 (Fall) Evaluation

Eight respondents received the maximum score of fifteen, and five, fourteen. The average for the quiz was 14. Well done! Here are the results:

Question Number who selected the
[best answer]
Number who selected [other
Inanna descends 15 [2], 6 [3] 0 [2], 0 [4]
Ninshubur 17 [1], 3 [3] 1 [2], 0 [4]
Kurgarra and galatur 16 [4] 4 [1, two points], 1 [2, two points], 0 [3, two points]
Dumuzi 11 [1] 6 [2, one point], 4 [3, two points], 0 [4]
Geshtiananna 20 [4] 0 [1], 1 [2], 0 [3]

Inanna descends to the Underworld

1. To rescue Dumuzi, her husband, who has died unexpectedly from an illness. [0]
2. To witness the funeral rites for Gugalanna, the husband of her sister Ereshkigal. [3]
3. To pour the beer of funeral rites for the Bull of Heaven. [3
4. As punishment for her treatment of Enkidu and Gilgamesh. [0]

The first response was incorrect because at this point in the narrative Dumuzi is still alive. The text does not support the fourth response. There is no mention of a punishment, and the characters of Enkidu and Gilgamesh do not appear in the narrative. The second and third responses were both correct and worth three points. When Inanna was at the outer gates of the Underworld, Neti, the gatekeeper inquires, “‘Why has your heart led you on the road / from which no traveler returns?’” Inanna responds: “‘Because . . . of my older sister, Ereshkigal, / Her husband, Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven, has died. / I have come to witness the funeral rites. / Let the beer of his funeral rites be poured into the cup. / Let it be done’” (p. 51).

Ninshubur was

1. Inanna’s faithful servant who secured Enki’s help for Inanna. [3]
2. The gatekeeper of the Underworld. [0]
3. The sukkal and warrior for Inanna. [3]
4. One of Inanna’s sons. The other was Lulal. [0]

Near the very beginning of the narrative the text refers to Ninshubur as Inanna’s “faithful servant” (p. 53). After Inanna fails to return, she goes to Enlil and Nanna to request their help in recovering Inanna from the underworld, but neither would intervene. She eventually prevails on Enki, who takes action by creating kurgarra and galatur, through whose visit to the underworld Inanna returns. After Inanna’s return from the Underworld, the galla threatened to take Ninshubur to the underworld in compensation for Inanna’s departure. Inanna refuses to relinquish her servant, refering to her as “my sukkal who gives me advice” and “my warrior who fights by my side” (69). Consequently responses one and three were correct and worth three points. Neti was the gatekeeper of the Underworld, and the two sons of Inanna were Shara and Lulal (p. 70).

Kurgarra and galatur

1. Used the food of life and the water of life to reanimate Inanna. [2]
2. Were genderless creatures formed from dirt. [2]
3. Gained the favor of Ereshkigal by commiserating with her. [2]
4. Were creatures created and sent by Enki to obtain the release of Inanna from the Underworld. [3]

All of the responses were correct and worth at least two points. The second refers to their nature as creations of Enki as described on page 64:

From under his fingernail Father Enki brought forth dirt.
He fashioned the dirt into a kurgurra, a creature neither male nor female.
From under the fingernail of his other hand he brought forth dirt.
He fashioned the dirt into a galatur, a creature neither male nor female.
He gave the food of life to the kurgurra.
He gave the water of life to the galatur.

The first describes how they brought Inanna’s corpse back to life by giving her the food and water of life (p. 67). The third response refers to the way they were able to obtain the body of Inanna as a gift from Ereshkigal as related in pages 64-67. The fourth response was worth three points because it was the most comprehensive, describing the overall nature of the creatures and their role in the narrative. The other responses were more specific but also more limited in their scope.

Dumuzi died because

1. Annuna, the judges of the underworld, demanded that someone take Inanna’s place in the Underworld. [3]
2. His friend betrayed Dumuzi’s hiding place to the galla. [1]
3. Inanna fastened the eye of death on him. [2]
4. Enlil, Nanna, and Enki found that he was hoarding offerings in his sister’s sheepfold. [0]

Only the last response was incorrect and yielded no points. Like the responses to the third question, some were more specific and referred to particular details of the narrative. The second response mentions how the galla were able to find Dumuzi in contrast to the resistance offered by Geshtinanna, his sister, who would not reveal her bother’s hiding place although the galla attempted to bribe her with a “water-gift” and a “grain-gift” and then resorted to violence, tearing her clothes and pouring pitch into her vulva. The third response refers to the result of Inanna’s anger at Dumuzi for not having mourned her “death” in the underworld. In fastening “the eye of death” on Dumuzi, she allowed the galla to take him to the underworld in her place. This response was worth two points. The first response was worth three points because it establishes the reason why the galla follow Inanna out of the underworld. The actions described in the first two responses ultimately derive from Annuna’s demand.

In the end, Geshtinanna

1. Accepted the gifts of water and grain and betrays her brother. [0]
2. Complained to Utu, the God of Justice, about Inanna’s failure to protect Dumuzi. [0]
3. Battled with the galla and saved her brother. [0]
4. Offered to share Dumuzi’s fate and spend half the year in the Underworld. [3

Only the last response was correct and worth three points. As noted above, Geshtinanna did not give in to the offer of gifts or even physical torture and reveal the hiding place of her bother. Dumuzi, not Geshtinanna, appealed to Utu, who transformed him into a snake enabling him to escape the galla at the end of the Descent of Inanna. His appeal there and a subsequent appeal in the Dream of Dumuzi did not refer to his Inanna’s decision to let him take her place in the underworld. Geshtinanna endured the torture of the galla but did not fight against them in defense of her brother.

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